The former Leeds flier, who will join Hull next season, takes over from his former Rhinos team-mate Lee Smith, who has failed to recover from a foot injury.
It is the only change to the side that gained a 32-22 win over Papua New Guinea in England's opening match in Townsville last Saturday.
Smith, who scored a hat-trick of tries against the Kumuls, is expected to be fit for consideration for England's final pool A match against New Zealand on Saturday week.
"Lee should be fine for next week," said Smith. "We thought he would have been okay for this week but he's not going to make it.
"There wasn't much between the two last week. It was a close call on Mark and he's got a chance this week."
Calderwood's call-up caps a remarkable turnaround in fortunes for the London-born winger.
He caught the eye in England's warm-up match against Wales earlier this month and was disappointed to miss out on selection for the opening game.
"Everyone who didn't play last week was disappointed and that showed in training this week," said Calderwood.
"Everyone is itching to play. Obviously you want to play against the best in the world."
In keeping the rest of the team intact, Smith has given his players a vote of confidence, despite their struggle to overcome the pool minnows.
"We discuss every week what team we'd like to put out and what team suits the opposition we're about to play," he said.
"We considered every position and decided to keep it pretty much how it was for all sorts of reasons."
Although he saw positives in the win over Papua New Guinea, Smith admits his side need to go through the gears against the defending champions.
"We need to improve but we feel there is a lot of improvement in us," he said.
Australia: Slater (Melbourne); Monaghan (Canberra), Inglis (Melbourne), Folau (Melbourne), Tate; Lockyer (Brisbane, capt), Thurston (North Queensland); Civoniceva (Penrith), Smith (Melbourne), Price, Stewart (Manly), Laffranchi (Gold Coast), Gallen (Cronulla).
Subs: Kite (Manly), Perry (Manly), Tupou (Sydney Roosters), Hunt (Brisbane).
England: P Wellens (St Helens); A Gardner (St Helens), M Gleeson (Warrington), K Senior (Leeds), M Calderwood (Wigan); L Pryce (St Helens), R Burrow (Leeds); J Peacock (Leeds, capt), J Roby (St Helens), J Graham (St Helens), G Hock (Wigan), G Ellis (Leeds), K Sinfield (Leeds).
Subs: D McGuire (Leeds), A Morley (Warrington), M Fa'asavalu (St Helens), J Wilkin (St Helens).